POMPEY° (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus; 106–48 B.C.E.), Roman general and one-time triumvir with julius caesar and crassus . In 64–63 B.C.E. Pompey effectively established Roman rule throughout Syria and Palestine. He ostensibly attempted to arbitrate between the Hasmonean factions, represented by the brothers hyrcanus ii and aristobulus ii , contending for supremacy in Judea. A third party, according to Diodorus (4:2; cf. Jos., Ant., 14:41), expressed preference for Roman domination which would allow for Jewish religious autonomy. Pompey, though receiving costly gifts from both the brothers, was only biding his time, and when the moment was opportune made his way to Jerusalem. The pro-Hyrcanus party opened the city gates to him. Aristobulus' faction (though he himself was now a prisoner of Pompey) resisted a siege of several months' duration. Both Jewish (Jos., ibid., 64ff.) and pagan sources (Dio Cassius, 37:16) confirm that Pompey took advantage of the Sabbath day, on which Jewsrefrained from taking the offensive, to accelerate siege operations. The Temple appears to have been stormed in midsummer 63 B.C.E. According to Josephus Pompey entered the Holy of Holies on a "fast-day" but left it intact. There is evidence by Dio Cassius, however, that the Temple treasury was robbed by Pompey. Wholesale slaughter of the defenders took place and the country became tributary to Rome. With this, Jewish independence came to an end, save for the few fitful years of the Jewish War (66–70) and the Bar Kokhba War (132–135). A telling blow was the severance from Judean control of the vital coastal towns of Gaza, Jaffa, Straton's Tower (later Caesarea), among others, as well as Samaria (Ḥag. 25a) and large areas of Transjordan. This act was the prelude to gabinius ' later subdivision of the country. Aristobulus was carried off to Rome in chains together with the members of his family, including his two sons, Alexander and Antigonus, the former escaping en route. Hyrcanus was rewarded by being granted the high priesthood and leadership of the nation. The noncanonical Psalms of Solomon are generally attributed to the period of Pompey's capture of the city where this event is described. Pompey is regarded as the "alien to our race" and rod of God's wrath against Hasmonean usurpation of the Davidic throne (Ps. of Sol. 7–9). According to some scholars his era may also be the background of the first century C.E. Pesher Habakkuk of the Dead Sea Scrolls. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: Jos., Loeb (ed.), vol. 9, p. 762; Schuerer, Hist, index S.V.; T. Mommsen, Roemische Geschichte, 3 (192213), 143ff.; A. Schalit, Ha-Mishtar ha-Roma'i be-Ereẓ Yisrael (1937), index; Klausner, Bayit Sheni, 5 (19512), 315; A. Schalit, Koenig Herodes (1969), 7ff., 678f., 757f. (David Solomon)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Поможем решить контрольную работу

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Pompey — [päm′pē, päm′pā] (L. name Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) 106 48 B.C.; Rom. general & triumvir …   English World dictionary

  • Pompey — For other uses, see Pompey (disambiguation). Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus Roman statue of Pompey, at the Villa Arconati a Castellazzo di Bollate (Milan, Italy). It was brought there from Rome in 1627 by Galeazzo Arconati. Born September 29, 106 BC …   Wikipedia

  • Pompey — 48° 46′ 08″ N 6° 07′ 42″ E / 48.7689, 6.1283 …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pompey — Der Name Pompey steht für: den Theologen Heinrich Pompeÿ den Kanton Pompey, siehe Kanton Pompey die Gemeinde Pompey im französischen Département Meurthe et Moselle die englische Bezeichnung für den römischen Feldherrn Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus den… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Pompey — Original name in latin Pompey Name in other language Pompey State code FR Continent/City Europe/Paris longitude 48.76653 latitude 6.12162 altitude 215 Population 5341 Date 2012 01 18 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Pompey — (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (106–48 BC)    Roman leader. When the Hasmonean brothers HYRCANUS II and ARISTOBOLUS II were struggling with each other over the succession in Judea, both of them sought the support of the Roman triumvir Pompey with… …   Who’s Who in Jewish History after the period of the Old Testament

  • Pompey — noun 1. Roman general and statesman who quarrelled with Caesar and fled to Egypt where he was murdered (106 48 BC) • Syn: ↑Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, ↑Pompey the Great • Instance Hypernyms: ↑general, ↑full general, ↑statesman, ↑solon, ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

  • Pompey (disambiguation) — Pompey can refer to: * Pompey (Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, also known as Pompey the Great Pompey the Triumvir) a Roman statesman * Gnaeus Pompeius Strabo father of Pompey the Great * Gnaeus Pompeius eldest son of Pompey the Great * Sextus Pompey… …   Wikipedia

  • Pompey's Pillar — may refer to: * Pompey s Pillar, Montana, USA * Pompeys Pillar National Monument, Montana, USA * Pompey s Pillar, Alexandria, Egypt * Pompey s Pillar (South Australia), a mountain in Wilpena Pound, South Australia …   Wikipedia

  • Pompey (dog) — Pompey was the well known Pug dog of William The Silent.According to legend, during a campaign against the Spanish by Prince of Orange, William The Silent, his Pug, Pompey, thwarted an assassination attempt. One night at Hermigny, France, while… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”